tel: 978-774-1880
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The Industry Standard in Laboratory Test Equipment


For three decades, M/K Systems, Inc. has developed and manufactured state-of-the-art laboratory test equipment and quality control instrumentation for the pulp and paper industry, nonwovens, chemical suppliers, and related industries. Concentrating on fundamental issues such as digesting, sheet-forming, formation, and absorbency, we have built a line of instruments ideally suited to these needs. With our extensive knowledge of processes and applications, M/K Systems, Inc. is prepared to help manufacturers and converters meet their development and production goals.

What's Your M/K?
"What's your M/K?" is a familiar question in the pulp and paper community. Briefly, we describe below how you can determine your M/K Formation Index, or the uniformity of your sheet, using our Formation Tester.

Data points are collected and stored in up to 64 "weight" classes. The difference in optical density between contiguous weight classes is approximately 1% on the gray scale. The data sets produce a histogram of the number of data points per weight class. This histogram displays the peak height (the number of data points per mean weight class) and the bins number (the number of contiguous weight classes with a minimum of 100 points. The formation index is defined as the peak height divided by the bins.

The more uniform a sheet, the larger its peak index, the fewer the bins and the greater the formation index. Conversely, the more flocculated a sheet, the lower the index. We have shown that, for any given type of paper, the formation index correlates closely with visual rankings.

If you would like additional information about the M/K Formation Index, please contact Andy Kallmes at 978.857.9228 or

Determining Anisotropic Properties -- PowerPoint (450KB)
Powerpoint file to help with determining anisotropic properties.

Determining Anisotropic Properties -- Video (2.9MB)
Animate .avi file to help with determining anisotropic properties.

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